Garbage

Urban waste

– 10 years ago there were 2.9 billion urban residents who generated about 0.64 kg of MSW per person per day (0.68 billion tonnes per year). This report estimates that today these amounts have increased to about 3 billion residents generating 1.2 kg per person per day (1.3 billion tonnes per year). By 2025 this will likely increase to 4.3 billion urban residents generating about 1.42 kg/capita/day of municipal solid waste (2.2 billion tonnes per year)
– United States leads the world in the production of waste, followed by other leading industrial nations.The U.S. manages to produce a quarter of the world’s waste despite the fact that its population of 300 million is less than 5% of the world’s population, according to 2005 estimates
– USA accumulates at least 236 million tons per year of municipal solid waste alone
– waste can be a problem, a commodity (a $57 billion U.S. industry), or an embarrassment–as when a state like New York has waste barges traveling about, looking for a place to land. Some other states, such as Pennsylvania, receive waste and get paid for it. Pennsylvania is, indeed, the lucky recipient of truckloads of New York trash. New York City spends around $1 million a day on long-haul trash
– the total amount of trash imported and exported around the U.S. is 40 million tons. The looming problem in the U.S. is that available landfill sites have dropped by 80% in the last few decades. The good news is that those still available are among the bigger ones. Still, each day we fill more than 44,000 garbage trucks, each holding about 9 tons of trash
– a landfill site (also known as tip, dump, rubbish dump or dumping ground and historically as a midden) is a site for the disposal of waste materials by burial and is the oldest form of waste treatment. Historically, landfills have been the most common methods of organized waste disposal and remain so in many places around the world. Some landfills are also used for waste management purposes, such as the temporary storage, consolidation and transfer, or processing of waste material (sorting, treatment, or recycling)
– landfill also may refer to ground that has been filled in with rocks instead of waste materials, so that it can be used for a specific purpose, such as for building houses. Unless they are stabilized, these areas may experience severe shaking or liquefaction of the ground in a large earthquake
– one of the problems of landfills is pollution of the road from dirty wheels on vehicles when they leave the landfill. To reduce this, wheel washing systems are used to clean the wheels as the vehicle exits the landfill. Poisonous lechate can also leak from the landfill contaminating nearby soil and groundwater. Methane gases are flammable and explosive if exposed to heat
– trash and garbage is a common sight in urban and rural areas of India. It is a major source of pollution. Indian cities alone generate more than 100 million tons of solid waste a year. Street corners are piled with trash. Public places and sidewalks are despoiled with filth and litter, rivers and canals act as garbage dumps. In part, India’s garbage crisis is from rising consumption. India’s waste problem also points to a stunning failure of governance
– the alternatives to landfills are waste reduction and recycling strategies. Secondary to not creating waste, there are various alternatives to landfills. In the late 20th century, alternative methods of waste disposal to landfill and incineration have begun to gain acceptance. Anaerobic digestion, composting, mechanical biological treatment, pyrolysis and plasma arc gasification have all begun to establish themselves in the market.
In recent years, some countries, such as Germany, Austria, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Switzerland, have banned the disposal of untreated waste in landfills. In these countries, only the ashes from incineration or the stabilized output of mechanical biological treatment plants may still be deposited