Minerals

Mineral resources are limitedBasic facts:

– mineral is a naturally occurring substance that is solid and stable at room temperature, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure. It is different from a rock, which can be an aggregate of minerals or non-minerals, and does not have a specific chemical composition
– there are over 4,900 known mineral species; over 4,660 of these have been approved by the International Mineralogical Association
– the silicate minerals compose over 90% of the Earth’s crust
– silicon and oxygen constitute approximately 75% of the Earth’s crust, which translates directly into the predominance of silicate minerals
– minerals can be described by a variable physical properties, which relate to its chemical structure and composition. Common distinguishing characteristics include crystal structure and habit, hardness, lustre, diaphaneity, colour, streak, tenacity, cleavage, fracture, parting, and specific gravity. More specific tests for minerals include reaction to acid, magnetism, taste or smell, and radioactivity
– classical examples of exceptions to this rule include native mercury, which crystallizes at -39°C, and water ice, which is solid only below 0°C; as these two minerals were described prior to 1959, they were grandfathered by the International Mineralogical Association (IMA)
– minerals are not equivalent to rocks. Whereas a mineral is a naturally occurring usually solid substance, stable at room temperature, representable by a chemical formula, usually abiogenic, and has an ordered atomic structure, a rock is either an aggregate of one or more minerals, or not composed of minerals at all
– the hexagonal crystal family is also split into two crystal systems — the trigonal, which has a three-fold axis of symmetry, and the hexagonal, which has a six-fold axis of symmetry
– diamond is the hardest natural material, and has a Mohs hardness of 10 (Talc – 1, Gypsum – 2, Calcite 3, Fluorite 4, Apatite 5, Orthoclase 6, Quartz 7, Topaz 8, Corundum 9)
– world mineral resources are limited
– iron ore sales rose are in increasing contributor to earnings with sales growing from 220,000 tonnes in fiscal 2008 to 3.8 million tonnes in fiscal 2012. Ore was historically sourced from third parties but future sales will be from company owned mines. Mineral Resources reported NPAT up 55.1% to $150.96m for the year ended 30 June 2011. Revenues from ordinary activities were $609.52m, up 95% from last year