Ocean

Ocean

Basic facts:

– 97,5% of world water is in oceans
– the Pacific Ocean covers a third of the planet
– the total mass of the hydrosphere is about 1,400,000,000,000,000,000 metric tons (1.5×1018 short tons) or 1.4×1021 kg, which is about 0.023 percent of the Earth’s total mass
– less than 3 percent is freshwater; the rest is saltwater, mostly in the ocean
– the area of the World Ocean is 361 million square kilometres (139 million square miles),[18] and its volume is approximately 1.3 billion cubic kilometres (310 million cu mi).[7] This can be thought of as a cube of water with an edge length of 1,111 kilometres (690 mi). Its average depth is 3,790 metres (12,430 ft), and its maximum depth is 10,923 metres (6.787 mi)
– he area of the World Ocean is 361 million square kilometres (139 million square miles),[18] and its volume is approximately 1.3 billion cubic kilometres (310 million cu mi).[7] This can be thought of as a cube of water with an edge length of 1,111 kilometres (690 mi). Its average depth is 3,790 metres (12,430 ft), and its maximum depth is 10,923 metres (6.787 mi)
– we have name for 5 connected oceans, but not including closed waters like Caspian Sea
– ocean currents greatly affect the Earth’s climate by transferring heat from the tropics to the polar regions, and transferring warm or cold air and precipitation to coastal regions, where winds may carry them inland
– native lifeforms in ocean are fishs, radiatas, cetaceas, cephalopods, crustanceans, marine worms, plankton and echinoderms

Garbage in oceanGarbage in ocean:

– the Great Pacific Garbage Patch (Trash Vortex) is a gyre of marine litter in the central North Pacific Ocean located roughly between 135°W to 155°W and 35°N and 42°N. The patch extends over an indeterminate area, with estimates ranging very widely depending on the degree of plastic concentration used to define the affected area
– the Patch is characterized by exceptionally high concentrations of pelagic plastics, chemical sludge, and other debris that have been trapped by the currents of the North Pacific Gyre
– Charles Moore has estimated the mass of the Great Pacific Garbage Patch at 100 million tons, which would be several tons per km
– 80% of the garbage comes from land-based sources and 20% from ships
– a typical 3,000-passenger cruise ship produces over eight tons of solid waste weekly
– ocean is critical for the transport of people and goods especially. In year 1900 there was no any plastic debris in any sea
– the pollution coming from mayor rivers like Ganges in India represents major health hazard to people living and doing business around the water
– damage to ocean life are alarming. Many of contamined fishs are then consumed by humans, resulting in their ingestion of toxic chemicals. Marine plastics also facilitate the spread of invasive species that attach to floating plastic in one region and drift long distances to colonize other ecosystems

Life in oceanOcean and the life:

– of the 1.5 million known species on Earth, some 250,000 live in the ocean
– Just 0.6 percent of the world’s oceans are closed to fishing
– the Pacific is the largest, deepest, oldest, most seismically active, and most biologically diverse body of water on the planet
– the Great Barrier Reef is the largest structure ever built by living organisms on Earth
– more than 90 percent of all marine species live on the bottom of the ocean
– coral reefs support a quarter of all marine species
– there are more than 360 known species of shark in the sea. The whale shark is the biggest fish alive
– the blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the suborder of baleen whales (called Mysticeti). At 30 metres (98 ft) in length and 170 tonnes (190 short tons) or more in weight, it is the largest known animal to have ever existed
– most of the plants and animals in the ocean live in its uppermost layer, where sunlight reaches
– over 1500 species of fungi are known from marine environments
– the ocean is an important source of food and other resources. Since well before recorded history, humans have used the sea as a source of food. While only 5% of the protein consumed by world populations comes from the sea, it is still an important contribution to the diet of millions of the world’s inhabitants. In 1996, Americans ate an average of 15 pounds of seafood per person