Soil

Soil and the lifeBasic facts: 

– scientists have found 10,000 types of soil in Europe and about 70,000 types of soil in USA
– soil contains small pieces of broken rock, fallen leaves, dead critters, decomposed tree
branches, decayed plants and a much more (best option is – 45% minerals, 25% water, 25% air, 5%
organic matter)
– soil stores 0.01% of the total water on Earth within its pores, nooks and crannies
– a fully functional soil holds 3750 tons of water per hectare, thus reducing the risk of floods. It holds pollutants to a certain extent. Soil stores around 10% of the emissions of carbon dioxide

Condition for life:Tractors

– an acre of soil can hold about 5-10 tons of living beings
– one gram of soil can hold about 5000-7000 bacteria species
– natural processes like weathering, erosions, rains, floods, hurricanes, thunderstorms,
tornadoes and the like all contribute to soil formation
– if you spread 5 tons of topsoil across an acre of field, the thick of it is 1 milimeter
– soil layers are called horizons (there are 4 main horizons)
– growing food on soil is still the best way. Hydroponics without soil much more requires more
specialized care. Soil is integral part of our ecosystem
– soil formation is a lengthy process. Soil forms by the process of physical or chemical
process and it can takes about 500 years to get 2 centimetres of topsoil
– 75% of the earth’s crust is composed of silica and oxygen
– fungi and bacteria help break down organic matter in the soil.
– soil is a non-renewable natural resource

Dry soilSoil pollution:

– industrial wastes such as harmful gases and chemicals, agricultural pesticides, fertilizers and insecticides are the number one causing soil pollution
– leakages from sanitary sewage
– construction sites, factories and buildings
– ignorance towards soil management, related systems and economy
– unhealthy waste management techniques, which are characterized by release of sewage into the large dumping grounds and nearby streams or rivers
– unfavorable and harmful irrigation practices
– improper septic system and management and maintenance of the same
– acid rains, when fumes released from industries get mixed with rains
– fuel leakages from automobiles, that get washed away due to rain and seep into the nearby soil