Water

WaterfallBasic facts:

– 97.5% of all water on Earth is salt water
– the rest of all water 2.5% is fresh water, but 70% of it is frozen into ice
– 24,36 million billion liters of water is in glaciers and permanently frozen ground
– 118 639 billion liters of water is in lakes, rivers, swamps, in the air and bodies of flora
and fauna
– 10,55 million billions liters of water is in soil
– to all human activity we can use only 1% of all fresh water
– 70% of thisvoda water is used for agriculture and food production

Water and people:

– Water is a very valuable commodity in the poor slums of giant cities as for example New Delhi
– the amount of moisture on the planet Earth has no changed for millions of years – but human
consumption is growing
– the first civilizations in the world were originated near large rivers. Proximity to the
water source is still essential even today
– some cities such as Las Vegas were built by people in the desert and the water here is very
valuable. The most expensive drink in Dubai is water
– every eighth person in the world is drinking dirty water – it leads to deaths of more than 3 million people every year
– some countries (mainly in the Persian Gulf) depend on seawater. More than 14 000 devices per
day is desalting 60 billion liters of water (desalination process)
– some people (such as Peru) are “fog catchers”, special nets on hillside catching small drops
of water
– around the Himalayas there is huge threat of the future ecological disaster due to melting
glaciers

Three Gorges DamWater and politics:

– the largest hydroelectric project built by the people is The Three Gorges Dam in China. The
reservoir created by the dam is about 660 kilometers (410 mi) in length and 1.12 kilometers
(0.70 mi) in width on average. The total surface area of the reservoir is 1045 km2, and it will
will flood a total area of 632 km2 of land. It has also vlypv the Earth’s axis
– New York City is supplied by the 137 km long water tunnel, daily leak of water is 135
million liters
– In 1964, Israel began operating a dam that diverts water from the Sea of Galilee, a major
Jordan River water provider, to the National Water Carrier. Also in 1964, Jordan constructed a
channel that diverted water from the Yarmouk River, another main tributary of the Jordan River.
Syria has also built reservoirs that catch the Yarmouk’s waters. Environmentalists blame
Israel, Jordan and Syria for extensive damage to the Jordan River ecosystem. This water
diversion may cause huge military conflict in the future.

Drinking (potable) water:

Water in lakeDrinking water is water safe enough to be consumed by humans or used with low risk of immediate or long term harm. In most developed countries, the water supplied to households, commerce and industry meets drinking water standards, even though only a very small proportion is actually consumed or used in food preparation. Typical uses (for other than potable purposes) include toilet flushing, washing and landscape irrigation.

Water has always been an important and life-sustaining drink to humans and is essential to the survival of all known organisms.[1] Excluding fat, water composes approximately 70% of the human body by mass. It is a crucial component of metabolic processes and serves as a solvent for many bodily solutes.

Sources where water may be obtained include:
– ground sources such as groundwater, hyporheic zones and aquifers.
– precipitation which includes rain, hail, snow, fog, etc.
– surface water such as rivers, streams, glaciers
– biological sources such as plants.
– the sea through desalination
– water supply network
– spring water

Water can be contaminated and unfit for human consumption due to physical, chemical or microbiological factors.